Steady state seepage analysis of a typical landfill capping. The capping is made of a layer of sand and a layer of re-cultivation soil. At the toe of the slope, the evacuation of the water through a ditch was modelled as a drain. The colors shows the total head and the blue arrows represent the flow lines. Per definition, flow lines and total head contours intersect with a 90° angle.
It is evident how the sand layer collects the water from the re-cultivation layer, and transports it to the discharging point. On the right low corner, the saturation distribution is visible (red: saturated; blue: not saturated).